Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) Remote Sensing Basics and Applications

This post will provide an overview of the basics of Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) and applications. The main topics discussed in the listed documents include: SAR basics, backscatter, geometry, interferometry, polarimetry, SAR data, data acquisition, available data sets/access to data, data analysis tools, future missions and SAR applications.

What is RADAR? – RAdio Detection And Ranging
What is SAR? – Synthetic Aperture Radar – Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active remote sensing technology that uses microwave energy to illuminate the surface. The system records the elapsed time an d energy of the return pulse received by the antenna.

Image result for SAR satellite systems (source: unavco)

Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR) Tutorials

  1. A Tutorial on Synthetic Aperture RADAR – ESA (PDF )  (PDF) (Radiometric Calibration of SAR Image)
  2. The Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation (CCMEO) is considered an international leader in the development and use of synthetic aperture radar or SAR sensors.  From space, SAR can image the Earth’s surface through clouds and in total darkness.  This makes it a tremendously useful sensor for monitoring Canada’s changing landmass and coastal zones. CCMEO scientists have worked with the Canadian Space Agency in the development of both RADARSAT 1 and RADARSAT 2  satellite missions.  Their research has led to improved data quality through enhanced sensor design and post-launch calibration and validation activities.
  3. This training manual introduces and explains Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), including applications for data from the Envisat ASAR sensor and how to combine Envisat and ERS images to produce interferograms and differential interferograms.
  4. Synthetic Aperture RADARs Imaging Basics (PDF)
  5. NOAA SAR Manual (PDF)
  6. Synthetic-aperture imaging from high-Doppler-resolution measurements (PDF)
  7. A Mathematical Tutorial on Synthetic Aperture RADAR (PDF)
  8. Remote sensed ground control points with TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X (PDF)

Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR) Applications

  1. Infrastructure Monitoring with Spaceborne SAR Sensors (Link)
  2. Soil Moisture Measurements by SAR (PDF)
  3. Marine applications: Sea Ice (Link), Marine Winds (PDF), Oil Pollution (PDF)
  4. Land deformation (Link)
  5. Flood Mapping (PDF) (PDF)

Space Based SAR Systems

RADARSAT-1

Launched in 1995, C-band HH-polirzation, Canadian Space Agency

Related image

http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/pdf/radarsat2_201004_e.pdf

https://mdacorporation.com/docs/default-source/product-spec-sheets/geospatial-services/r1_prod_spec.pdf?sfvrsn=6

https://services.cap.ca/drupal/sites/cap.ca/files/article/3289/pic100145-offprint-v-singhroy-highres.pdf

RADARSAT-2

Launched in 2007, C-band quad-polirzation, MDA, CSA

https://mdacorporation.com/docs/default-source/technical-documents/geospatial-services/52-1238_rs2_product_description.pdf?sfvrsn=10

https://www.mcgill.ca/meteo/files/meteo/7_1_perrie-zhang.pdf

ftp://ftp.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/SeaIce/Helicopter_Data/Gulf2000/images2000/RSAT2%20APPS%20Report%202.pdf

https://earth.esa.int/landtraining09/D1La1_Halounova_SARBasics.pdf

SENTINEL 1a/b

Launched in 2014/15, C-band dual-polirzation, European Space Agency (ESA)

Image result for sentinel-1

https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/missions/sentinel-1/data-products

http://seom.esa.int/polarimetrycourse2017/files/materials/Sentinel-1_Mission_Overview.pdf

http://gofc-fire.umd.edu/meeting/static/GOFC_Fire_IT_2014/GOFC_NOAA_Fire_IT_pdfs/GOFC_NOAA_Tuesday_PM_pdfs/6_GOFC-GOLD_Olivier_FINAL.pdf

RISAT-1

Launched in 2012, C-band single/dual & Circular Polirzation, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO)

Image result for RISAT-1

https://nrsc.gov.in/sites/all/pdf/format3.pdf

Terra SAR-X / TanDEM-X

launched in 2007/10, X-band quad polirzation, DLR/Astrium, Germany

Image result for TERRA SAR -X Tan DEM X

https://mdacorporation.com/docs/default-source/product-spec-sheets/geospatial-services/image_product_guide.pdf?sfvrsn=4

ALOS-2

Launched in 2014, L-band quad polirzation, Japanese Space Agency (JAXA)

Image result for ALOS2

https://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS-2/en/doc/fdata/PALSAR-2_xx_Format_CEOS_E_r.pdf

https://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS-2/en/doc/fdata/PALSAR-2_xx_Format_GeoTIFF_E_r.pdf

http://www.gfoi.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/PALSAR-Interpretation-Guide-v1.1.pdf

COSMO SkyMed

Launched in 2007/10, 4 Satellites X-band dual polirzation, ASI/Italy

Image result for Cosmo skymed product description

http://www.e-geos.it/images/documents/COSMO-SkyMed%20Mission%20and%20Products%20Description.pdf

HJ-1C-SAR

Launched in 2013,  S-band (HH or VV) polarization CRESDA/CAST/NRSCC, China

Image result for HJ-1C-SAR  product description

http://www.cresda.com/EN/satellite/7117.shtml

PAZ

Launched in 2014, X-band quad polarization, Ministry of Defence, Spain

Related image

http://sarcv.ceos.org/site_media/media/documents/12h20_-_B._Gomez_-_PAZ_Mission_Charac.pdf

Kompsat-5

Launched in 2013, X-band dual polarization, KARI, Korea

Image result for Kompsat-5 Kari -band product description

https://www.cosmic.ucar.edu/oct2009workshop/prespublic/cho-29.pdf

https://www.nspo.narl.org.tw/ICGPSRO2018/download/pdf/S1.1_NOAA%20Keynote_4th%20ICGPSRO_April%2018%202018_032318_Harry_032318_Final.pdf

http://www.koreaaero.com/english/product/multipurpose04.asp

SAOCOM – 1/2

Launched in 2016/18, L-band quad polarization, CONAE/ASI, Argentina

Image result for SAOCOm  L-band product description

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a0db/a9ba6197c91498c8dba0f76a4ffa8d58dcdc.pdf

http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/sat/meetings/documents/PSTG-SARCWG-5_Doc_06-01_Special%20ProjectsCONAE.pdf

RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM)

Will launch in 2019 three satellites, C-band quad compact polirzation, Canadian Space Agency (CSA)

Image result for RADARSAT Constellation Mission product description

http://www.asc-csa.gc.ca/eng/funding-programs/funding-opportunities/ao/2017-rcm-pre-launch-preparedness.asp

ftp://ftp.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ad/RSS_Review_2012/11%20-%20CHARBONNEAU%20RSS_RCM_CP_final.pdf

http://cradpdf.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/PDFS/unc246/p804551_A1b.pdf

https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/eccc/migration/main/glaces-ice/0f9e03b9-1146-4ad4-a13b-ae9e07c9f72b/3.manore_etal_astro2010.pdf

https://earth.esa.int/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=409312&name=DLFE-5582.pdf

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